University of Nigeria Journal of Political Economy <p><strong>University of Nigeria Journal of Political Economy (UNJPE) </strong>is a peer reviewed quarterly publication of University of Nigeria. The journal aims at publishing evidence-based research as well as theoretical discourses on social sciences, humanities and arts, law and on general academic inquiries.</p> Department of Political Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka en-US University of Nigeria Journal of Political Economy Rethinking Nigeria’s Afrocentric Foreign Policy and the Politics of the Technical Aid Corps Programme <p>Nigeria’s Afrocentric foreign policy posture has given the country worldwide visibility and recognition as a putative regional hegemon with the right to speak and be listened to on African issues. To further drive the vision, Nigeria in 1987 established the Technical Aid Corps Scheme as a platform to provide technical support to the least developed countries in Africa, Caribbean and pacific (ACP) based on request. The scheme is designed around four main objectives namely: to share Nigeria’s Know-how and expertise with other African, Caribbean and pacific countries; to give assistance on the basis of assessed and perceived needs of the recipient countries; to promote cooperation and understanding between Nigeria and recipient countries; and to facilitate meaningful contacts between the youths of Nigeria and those of the recipient countries. Even though the program has been implemented for about 35 years, very few scholars have shown interest in finding out the level of implementation of the program and its impact on the achievement of Nigeria’s national interest. This study has been designed to bridge this gap in the literature. The central question we intend to interrogate in this study is: has the implementation of the Technical Aid Corps scheme enhanced the achievement of Nigeria’s foreign policy objectives in Africa? In other words, what are the gains and pains of the Technical Aid scheme? The study was anchored on the manifest destiny theory of foreign policy and data was generated from secondary sources. The findings revealed that Nigeria has creditably used the Afrocentric foreign platform to fulfill her manifest destiny to lead and speak for Africa. We therefore argued that the call to scrap the policy is illogical, ill-conceived and myopic. In conclusion, for Nigeria to remain the “Giant of Africa “, the continuity of the Afrocentric foreign policy is a desideratum.</p> Jonah Onuoha Ifeanyi Onuoha Copyright (c) 2022 University of Nigeria Journal of Political Economy 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 12 1 The Political Economy of Nigeria – Indonesia <p>Nigeria and Indonesia are similar in countless ways however Indonesia has long escaped from the stagnancy of underdevelopment and economic backwardness leaving Nigeria behind as she is still engulfed with challenges of ethno-religiosity bedeviling her economic development. The study contends that both Nigeria and Indonesia are secular states, yet ethno-religion has little or no impact on the economic policies and developmental strides in Indonesia, whereas, Nigeria is deeply rooted and influenced by ethnic and religious divides. The study adopts time-series or trend research design, via comparative approach, documentary method of data collection, qualitative method of data analysis. The study is anchored on structural-functionalism as the theoretical beacon of analysis. The study deciphered that ethnic-religiosity, corruption, and leadership ineptitude/failure are undoubtedly factors that have continually bedeviled the Nigerian body-politic, as these factors determine to a huge extent the kind of public policy and economic policy made in Nigeria, which constitutes her economic woes. The study recommends amongst others that the Nigerian government should borrow a leaf from Indonesia in formulating economic policies that can stand the test and taste of time, devoid of ethno-religiosity. More so, there is a need to rebuild nationalism and patriotism against ethnicity and religious differences.</p> K. Ndubuisi Emegha Copyright (c) 2022 University of Nigeria Journal of Political Economy 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 12 1 The Politics of Marginalization in Nigeria <p>This study is a meticulous survey of the experiences of marginalization inherent in the Nigerian politics with particular attention to the marginalization of the Niger Delta people of the South-South and the Igbos of the South East geopolitical zones. The study found out that the people of these areas share experiences of marginalization in diverse dimensions which are hoisted on the minority question as it peculiarly relates to the South-South and the experiences of the Nigerian-Biafran civil war respectively. The theory of Relative Deprivation was applied in the analysis. The theory states that when people feel that they are denied certain rights and privileges relative to a reference group, they are bound to express their discontent through conflicts. This has been the case in the Nigerian federalism over time which has continued in the fourth republic. The study therefore recommended the building of synergy by the South-South and South East geopolitical zones as being imperative and also proposed arrangements that would culminate in having strong federating units and relatively weak federal government as a panacea.</p> Obinna Onwubiko Nene Veronica Ugorji Copyright (c) 2022 University of Nigeria Journal of Political Economy 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 12 1 An Assessment of the Impact of Monetary Policy on General Price Stability in Nigeria <p>This study examined the effect of monetary policy on price stability in Nigeria using a data-rich framework spanning from 1986-2020 with the interest in exploring which of monetary policy has been effective in propelling price stability and how inflation responds to the monetary policy implementation. The main problem with the macro-economic policies that prompted this study was the fact that despite the series of the CBN Monetary Policy Committee decisions there is apparently no useful effect on inflation (price stability). The study employed Auto-regression Distributed Lag (ARDL) Bound Test for Co-integration of data analysis and Error Correction Model (ECM) estimation. The ADF test revealed that, inflation (INF), exchange rate (EXR) and broad money supply (M<sub>2</sub>) were stationary at first difference 1(1); while monetary policy rate (MPR) and real interest rate (RIR) were stationary at level 1(0). The results of the ARDL bounds revealed that the null hypothesis of no long-run relationship were all rejected implying that a long-run effect exists among monetary policy variables and price stability. ECM coefficient of -0.0151 conforms with expectation. Durbin-Watson statistic of 2.2381 revealed that the model seems not to have any case of autocorrelation. The result of our analysis shows that EXR, M<sub>2</sub>, and MPR have negative and insignificant on price stability, while RIR has negative and significant on price stability. The study concluded that monetary policy in Nigeria is does has insignificant impact on general piece stability. We, therefore, recommended that, for monetary policy to be more effective in ensuring price stability in Nigeria, the Central Bank of Nigeria should promote policies for greater financial inclusion.</p> Onehi Damian Haruna Patrick K. Adigwe Terungwa P. J. Jato Copyright (c) 2022 University of Nigeria Journal of Political Economy 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 12 1 The Social Impact of Covid-19 among Rural Communities in Enugu State, Nigeria <p>Since the eruption of the lethal and infectious coronavirus pandemic in December, 2019, Nigerians and people across the world have continued to wrestle with the negative outcomes related with the virus.&nbsp; In Nigeria, the government’s unsatisfactory reaction to the needs of the people and many more issues gave reason for the present investigation and the study sought to assess the social effects of the Covid-19 pandemic in Nigeria. The study stuck to a Qualitative research Model and adopted an explorative research design, interviews were also conducted on traders, food vendors, transporters, small and medium scale businesses, and some other individuals who were distressed by the lockdown policy. Findings from the study revealed that citizens from the rural areas were socially affected with low life expectancy and increase in crime rate.&nbsp; It was recommended that government should provide security and health infrastructures to increase the quality of life, be responsible to citizens and finally, government should be transparent, responsive and shun corruption.&nbsp; All these will go a long way in cushioning the social effects of the pandemic.</p> Oluchukwu Mmaobika Awa-Samuel Ugochukwu Christian Obieke Osinachi Peter Uba-Uzoagwa Copyright (c) 2022 University of Nigeria Journal of Political Economy 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 12 1 Protraction of Syrian Conflict <p>Literature on Syria’s conflict are a washed with efforts of different parties, countries and organisations towards solving the crisis. This paper interrogates Russia’s military intervention in the conflict as well as the connection between its refusals to co-operate with the Western members of the UN Security Council in enacting peace resolutions and protraction of the conflict. Relying on the rational choice theory, the study analyzes the relationship between Russia’s behaviour in the Syrian conflict and its economic interests. It discovers that Russia’s failure to co-operate with the Western members of the UNSC to reach consensual peace resolutions on ending the conflict was tied to economic interests. The study recommends that the West and Russia is required to intensify negotiation and co-operation that will ensure mutual preservation of Syria, Russia and the West economic and strategic interest in the country.</p> Emmanuel O. Ezeani Clement N. Oligie Kingsley E. Okoye Copyright (c) 2022 University of Nigeria Journal of Political Economy 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 12 1 The Resurgence of Military Coups d’état in African Politics and the Reversal of Democracy <p>The resurgence of military coups in African Politics recently is intriguing. It is a recurrent of militarism in the continent of Africa which went on extinction about two decades ago. This development is problematic because military coups d’etat have the potency of contagion effect. They can spread wide and fast too in the circumstance of the level of facilitation by different situations. Last year, Chad, Mali, Guinea and Sudan experienced military Coups d’etat. This year also the Military struck in Bissau and Burkina Faso between January and early February respectively. The rather quick successive upsurge and dimension coups have assumed backsliding Africa to the brink of praetorian society calls for concern. This paper attempts to examine the resurgence of military coup d’etat in African politics and the reversal of democracy in the Region. The method of Data collection and analysis were built on qualitative descriptive approach while the conflict theory was adopted in explaining the problem investigated. The study found out that, the resurgence of military coups in African politics is a threat to democracy and needs to be tackled for democracy to survive.</p> Orkuma Anyoko-Shaba Copyright (c) 2022 University of Nigeria Journal of Political Economy 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 12 1 Swamped with Poverty and Agony <p>Oil exploration by multinational oil corporations in Niger Delta host communities has resulted in environmental deterioration with adverse effects for the residents. This degradation accelerated the demise of the ecology and farmlands, which are the indigenous' primary source of income. This has occasioned mass poverty in the midst of plenty in the region. Arising from persistent agitations by the inhabitants of the oil-bearing communities for redress, various intervention measures have been adopted by both the federal government and the oil companies. This paper is an evaluative study of the impact of those measures on the incidences of poverty and unemployment in the region.&nbsp; The study adopted the dependency theory as its framework of analysis. The data were gathered through the documentary method and were analyzed using content analysis based on logical deduction. It found that in spite of the various interventions by the federal government and the oil companies the negative consequences of oil extraction in the Niger Delta, unemployment and high poverty level have continued undiminished. The paper advocated for an integrated community-based approach that would include stakeholders’ commitment to enhance their strategies and establish contingency plans to deal with oil spills and follow ecologically friendly safety measures during oil exploration.&nbsp;</p> Uchenna Bartholomew Nwokoma Kalu Samuel Obasi Kenneth N. Dim Copyright (c) 2022 University of Nigeria Journal of Political Economy 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 12 1 Covid-19 Pandemic and Its Implications for Human Resources <p>The study is to examine covid-19 pandemic and its implications for human resources: The Nigerian experience. The incessant spread of the dreaded virus globally coupled with the way we work, live and the persistent humanitarian crisis increased drastically and constituted enormous challenges to human resources available to organizations despite a coordinated effort to mitigate the risk of being infected with the virus. It is from the foregoing that the objectives of this study were drawn. Specifically, the study will ascertain the implications of covid-19 on jobs in Nigeria, investigate the implications of covid-19 on employee training in Nigeria, and examine the implications of covid-19 on psychological well-being of human resources in Nigeria. The paper is an ex-post facto research and adopted its analytical methodology from conventional content analysis based on secondary data gleaned from journals, textbooks, newspapers, web pages and government publications. Meanwhile, the study employed incentive theory as the theoretical umbrella for this discourse. The findings show that, some employees were stripped of their jobs because they could not contribute meaningfully to their organizations. Employees were not trained because employers felt they were redundant and unproductive. Some of them experienced psychological distress as a result of fear of contacting the virus and losing their job. The study recommends for people stripped of their jobs to engage in entrepreneurial initiatives as a genuine strategy of job creation, community resource assistance for those who lost their jobs, employees training for efficiency, open access to mental health and psychological support services.</p> Uchechukwu Anthony Nwobi Copyright (c) 2022 University of Nigeria Journal of Political Economy 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 12 1 United States-Russian Political Economy of Interests and Management of Syrian Conflict, 2011-2020 <p>The unparalleled suffering, destruction and disregard for human life in Syria has shocked the world‘s conscience. The conflict has once again portrayed the international system for what it is; a brutal arena where states look for opportunities to take advantage of each other and do what it takes to achieve their interests. Thus, the study is guided by the following research questions: (i) did the interventions by the big powers account for the hike in humanitarian crisis in Syria? (ii) Did the US- Russia strategic interests implicated on their economic relations with Middle East? The theoretical framework of analysis for this study was anchored on the structural-realist theory. Methodologically, the study relied on documentary method, and data were sourced through text books, journal articles, internet sources and official documents. The findings of the study revealed that the conflicting interests of United States and Russia is fuelling Syrian conflict, thereby undermining the management of the conflict. The study underscored that a lasting peace will not be achieved if United States and Russia continue to undermine each other in Syria. The study therefore recommends for a reset in US-Russia relations, one that will lead to deeper co-operation between the two great powers. To assuage the human suffering in Syria, and to effectively manage the conflict, both United States and Russia should relinquish their zero sum game and instead channel their power and influence towards bringing out a negotiated solution that will involve compromise by conflicting parties on the basis of mutual consent.</p> Ifeanyichukwu Michael Abada Paul Hezekiah Omeh Felicia Chika Abada Copyright (c) 2022 University of Nigeria Journal of Political Economy 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 12 1 Book Review <p>The essay “Rethinking United States-Africa Relations: US Engagement and the Development Question in Africa” by Prof. Jonah Onuoha was published in 2020 as a reproduction of a lecture with the same title he delivered to Course 27 Participants at the National Defence College in Abuja, Nigeria in 2019. In the essay, Onuoha discusses the question of whether US engagement with Africa rather enhanced development or underdevelopment on the continent. In order to do this, Onuoha traces the history of US-Africa relations to analyse thrusts and trends of this relationship and paints a prognosis of possible future scenarios.</p> Lucina Diehl Copyright (c) 2022 University of Nigeria Journal of Political Economy 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 12 1 Environmental Rights and Insecurity <p>This study interrogates the interconnection between environmental rights, insecurity and development. The Niger Delta region constitute its focus. Although, associated literature have highlighted the impacts of environmental rights on insecurity in the region, the analysis appears to have focused on oil companies’ activities and its impact on insecurity/conflict on development while neglecting the impact of oil on communities caused by artisanal/local refining in the region. Thus, this study was set out to fill this gap. To achieve this, the study employed the application of two theoretical frameworks. The structural violence theory and the political economy framework. The structural violence theory sees the lopsided social structures, institutions and deprivation as conditions creating fertile grounds for insecurity/conflict while the political economy framework sees the environment as a productive force-social capital. Hence, its destruction creates a fertile ground for insecurity/conflict in the region. The study is purely qualitative relying mainly on documentary reports. Data was gathered through secondary source and analysis was done through qualitative and institutional processes. Findings of the study showed that lack of environmental rights and access to scarce resources create a fertile ground for insecurity/conflict and this impacts on development in the Niger Delta region. Environmental protection/conservation through legislative acts, promotion of environmental rights campaign through mass media, inclusion of environmental rights as part of human rights campaign through constitutional provisions are recommended as the most likely means to enhance environmental rights and by extension promotion of security. This in turn would enhance/promote development in the Niger Delta region.</p> Anthony Rufus Jonah Sinivie Copyright (c) 2022 University of Nigeria Journal of Political Economy 2022-09-05 2022-09-05 12 1 The Political Economy of Illegal Mining in Nigeria <p>The paper examined the political economy of illegal mining in Nigeria with particular reference to Zamfara State. Illegal mining activity is a growing socio-economic challenge in Zamfara state especially in Bukkuyum Local Government Area. This activity has led to loss of ecosystems and increased poverty level especially among peasant farmers who depend solely on environmental resources for a living. Theoretically, it is anchored on Political Economy Theory while methodologically; the paper utilizes both primary and secondary methods of data collection.&nbsp;Primary method on one hand, involves generating data via Structured Questionnaire (SQ) administered to target respondents selected through multi-stage sampling procedure. 400 respondents formed the sample size determined through Yamani (1967) statistical formula for sample size determination. While the secondary method on the other hand entails that data were generated from books, journals and web-based materials among others. The paper revealed that illegal gold mining activities lead to increase in revenue generation of Bukkuyum Local Government Area thereby improving the living conditions of the people. The study concludes that illegal mining sector is seen in Bukkuyum local government to be one of the major economic ventures in which people who are unemployed engage in to generate income which they use to cater for themselves and their families. The study recommends among others, the establishment of Gold mining companies with modern equipment and technology most especially in places where illegal mining activities are taking place to avoid its negative public health outcomes and attendant environmental hazard.</p> Abdulrahman Adamu Ahmed Haroon Jazbhay Everisto Benyera Copyright (c) 2022 University of Nigeria Journal of Political Economy 2022-09-05 2022-09-05 12 1